Identity, diversity and difference: young people’s experience of fertility difficulties

Understanding ethnicity and diversity

South Asian parents’ and young people’s discussions about fertility following bone marrow transplantation in thalassaemia further illustrate the importance of conceptualizing ethnicity within this broader context. Several years after the event, parents and young people often complain that they were not informed about the possible effects on fertility following bone marrow transplantation. Research, however, suggests that they were informed but at the time chose to focus on the prospect of ‘cure’ rather than the long-term consequences of the treatment tretinoin cream Canada. This is perhaps understandable, particularly since bone marrow transplantation occurs at a young age when fertility may not always be uppermost in a parent’s mind. Such a response, however, occurs irrespective of ethnicity and seems to be a feature of bone marrow transplantation.

Ethnicity, therefore, does not always equate with difference. Similarly, not every problem or difficulty a person encounters as they attempt to gain access to appropriate service delivery can be attributed to his or her ethnic background. Socio-economic status, age and gender may be as important as ethnicity in making sense of a person’s health and social care needs. By improving services generally we can often improve support for minority ethnic populations.

Disability, chronic illness and identity

Up to now we have discussed identity within the broader context of ethnicity, diversity and difference. There has been, however, an important theme missing from our discussion. Many of the issues raised by more specific discussions about ethnicity, chronic illness and disability have relevance to emerging discourses on fertility and ethnicity. Debates about identity are complex but are perhaps more so for disabled or chronically ill people from minority ethnic groups. Young people may wish to identify with the religious and cultural values of their family as well as with those of the more Western-orientated wider society in which they live. The experience of disability in which they are struggling to reconcile the inability of the wider society to accommodate difference, while maintaining a positive identity, further complicates the situation.

The past 20 years have seen a shift in how disability is perceived in Western societies. The medical model, with its emphasis on rehabilitation and sense of personal tragedy, has been challenged by a more social model in which disability is seen in relation to the attitudes and barriers imposed by an unjust society .

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Testosterone for Erectile Dysfunction

The specific issue of whether exogenous testosterone can be considered as a primary treatment for ED regardless of etiology is difficult. In clinical practice, there is no need to look to testosterone as first-line therapy when there are disease-specific alternatives. Although there has been a meta-analysis no studies exist to assess testosterone vs. placebo for therapy of ED of wide-spectrum etiology using good numbers and careful design comparable to modern clinical trials. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to examine whether testosterone therapy could salvage sildenafil citrate in Canada failure in men with ED and hypogonadism.

The ratio of yearly turnover in the drugstores of Australia is slowly but steadily shifts in favour of Australian Pharmacy outlets online, with virtual shopping consistently superseding physical shopping. This can be accounted for by quite a number of reasons ranging anywhere between further infiltration of high technologies in every sphere of our lives and little enthusiasm that normally accompanies buying drugs like Viagra in Australia in person. Confidentiality, availability and simplicity are what you get with Australian Pharmacy online.

A total of 75 men were included in the study and were treated with 50 mg/d of testosterone in the form of 1% testosterone gel. Using the International Index of Erectile Function as an assessment tool, following 4 wk of therapy, erectile function was shown to be significantly improved compared with placebo (p = 0.0290). Significant improvements were also reported in orgasmic function (p = 0.009), overall satisfaction (p = 0.02), and the total score of the sexual function questionnaire (p = 0.011). Serum testosterone levels increased from 300 ng/dL at baseline to 500 to 600 ng/dL in the testosterone group. Kalinchenko et al.reported similar results.

Testosterone-replacement therapy for the treatment of ED should be reserved for clear or reasonable biochemical or clinical indications suggesting that androgen abnormali-ties are a contributing cause and that testosterone replacement will not be harmful. The 2nd International Consultation on Erectile Dysfunction (2003) recommended that it is important to screen men who present with ED for low serum testosterone and hypogonad-ism, particularly if they fail treatment with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors or if they are in at-risk populations, such as those with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or chronic renal failure.

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Treating ED in Patients with CVD

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors

Oral nitrates are not prognostically important drugs and can therefore be discontinued and, if needed, alternative agents substituted. After oral nitrate cessation, and provided there has been no clinical deterioration, PDE5 inhibitors can be used safely. It is recommended that the cessation time interval prior to PDE5 inhibitor use is five half-lives which equals 5 days for the most popular once-daily nitrate agents. Sildenafil and vardenafil both have a short half-life, which makes them the viagra canada drugs of choice in patients with more severe CVD, allowing early use of support therapy if an adverse clinical event occurs.

In contrast, because of its long half-life, tadalafil online Australia may not be the first choice for the patients with more complex cardiovascular disease.

However, as 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease stratify into low risk, it is an alternative for the majority. Tadalafil 10 mg is equivalent to sildenafil 50 mg and 20 mg to 100 mg.

Of particular interest is the daily use of tada-lafil 2.5 and 5 mg. In on-demand failures, a regular dosing regime has been successful in 60% without increased adverse effects. This has increased the chance of success with important implications for the more difficult cases such as cardiac failure. There is no evidence of increased cardiovascular risk with on-demand, three times weekly, or daily dosing.

but specialized training is needed. There is no evidence of increased cardiovascular risk from using any of these therapeutic options. If surgical intervention with general anesthetic is being anticipated, a full cardiological risk evaluation is recommended.

Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

The reports of risk of “blindness” following PDE5 inhibitor use has caused concern. Several case reports have linked PDE5 inhibitors to Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (NAION).

No explanation as to the mechanism currently exists and it is most likely coincidental, given the widespread use of PDE5 inhibitors in men who are at risk, being older and with vascular disease. The only identifiable risk factor is a small cup-disc ratio.

It seems sensible to avoid PDE5 inhibitors in those previously suffering NAION in one eye.

Key Points

  • Cardiac disease is not a contradiction to sexual activity.
  • High risk cases require a cardiac assessment, not a negative attitude.
  • PDE5 inhibitors are safe and effective drugs if used correctly.
  • Alternative therapies to PDE5 inhibitors are available and do not increase cardiac risk in properly assessed patients.

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Other Therapies

When oral agents are not effective, intracavernous injection therapy, transurethral alprostadil, or a vacuum pump are alternatives requiring specialized referral and advice. Warfarin is not a contraindication to vacuum pump or injections.

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What Are Nitric Oxide Erections for Men?

Nitric oxide results in the relaxation of the blood vessels, the regeneration of the inner lining of the arteries and prevents the clumping of platelets which then results in the blood being thinner. Nitric oxide is used in the treatment of different cardiovascular diseases such as clotting and the narrowing of the arteries. Some cases of erectile dysfunction results from a cardiovascular issue. In these instances nitric oxide not only helps in the treatment of these diseases but it consequently treats the erectile dysfunction that is a symptom of the disease. Impotence or erectile dysfunction, in some cases happens when the blood vessels in the penis are unable to dilate sufficiently and enable enough blood to flow through the penis and enable the engorgement that results in the erection. Because the blood vessels in the penis are relaxed they are able to accommodate more blood flow, resulting in a nitric oxide erection.

Nitric oxide is available as a supplement that men can take. These supplements contain arginine. This is an amino acid that facilitates the production in the body. Unfortunately, with such supplements the results do not last for long and they also require high dosages. For men who want more than what an erection can use herbal supplements that can help with their erectile dysfunction problems. This includes Ginseng. Nitric oxide has to be present in the body for any man to be able to get and maintain an erection. Unfortunately, men who are experiencing impotence and erectile dysfunction are suffering from this problem because the levels in the body decrease as one gets older.

As previously mentioned, nitric oxide is naturally produced in the body. It is a combination of an oxygen atom and arginine. It is produced in the endothelial cell membranes and then is transferred to the muscle tissue of the blood vessels. Here vasodilatation occurs. This is simply the process whereby the blood vessels in the penis are relaxed and so grow in size. This then enables the penis to accommodate more blood flow. Erectile dysfunction is often a sign of a cardiovascular issue if there is insufficient blood flow to the penis. This often happens when there is a lot of plaque in the arteries. The growth of plaque in the arteries is often a consequence of decreased production, which is something that naturally happens in men as they grow older.

There are pills that one can get in order to increase the levels in the body temporarily. Such pills include Viagra in Canada and Cialis. These pills are only available through a prescription through a doctor. These drugs increase the levels in the body for a few hours. Unfortunately, drugs such as these do not help in the long-term improvement in the production in the body. For this reason these drugs should only be used for the purposes of sexual intercourse and must be taken right before to ensure an erection.

Fortunately, there are some natural ways in which men can increase the levels of nitric oxide in their bodies. Regular exercise is one of the best ways to do so. This exercise has to increase the heart rate. Other than exercise men should reduce their cholesterol levels, they should also stop smoking if they are smokers. Basically, a good lifestyle and healthy diet will delay the decline of nitric oxide in the body. Prevention is better than cure in this case as the male enhancement drugs can be very costly. And also, irresponsible use of these supplements will result in to severe side effects. If used excessively it may also result in to a permanent damage to the male organ.

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Is Wart Vaccination Against Cancer A Reality?

Warts have plagued humans for centuries. In fact, warts are often seen in stories and fairytales as being a sickness of ugly and horrible people. It’s not surprising really if you consider how horrible they can look when you let them get out of control. But these days the problem can be solved. How is this possible?

Medical science has once again come to the rescue. Clever researchers started by isolating the cause of warts. They pinpointed a virus as the cause, which was a bit of a surprise. But this is a slow growing virus that sets to work after entering your system. It produces fleshy little growths on your skin that can turn into ugly cauliflower like growths if they are not treated.

Wart treatments over the years have been mostly conventional. Various liquid medicines have been applied to warts – some worked and some did not. But this was slow and painstaking work. Similarly, the surgical methods were only moderately successful. These were methods like burning them off, also known as electrocautery, or freezing them off, also known as cryotherapy.

Then came laser therapy which had some success also. But the problem has always been that you can only get rid of the warts that you can see with the naked eye – and that’s only half of them! Many tiny microscopic warts are already present on the skin but you can’t see them yet. This presented a major problem to doctors all over the world.

To complicate matters, it was also recently discovered that cervical cancer in women is indirectly caused by the same virus that causes genital warts. It is called the Human Papilloma Virus. And scientists discovered that there are quite a few different strains of the virus around. Two of these strains cause genital warts and two others cause cervical cancer.

Faced with this dilemma the scientists set to work. In the past few years the breakthrough came when they discovered a vaccine for the HPV virus. This means that you can now be vaccinated against HPV at a young age. Currently girls as young as 12 years old are being vaccinated already. This is to prevent them from getting the viral infection before they are even exposed to it.

A dual action vaccine has now been developed that prevents both strains of the virus. This means you can be protected against genital warts as well as cervical cancer in later life. So it’s become a no brainer really. Every young girl aged twelve or older should be given the three course vaccination to protect her against both these nasty diseases. Prevention is better than cure as they say in the classics!

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Liver Cancer Tell Tale Signs and Symptoms

Liver is one of the important parts of our body that secrets bile juice and helps in the digestion of the food we eat. When cells in the liver start growing at an abnormal rate causing problems in the normal functioning of the liver then it should be suspected as liver cancer. It is very difficult to identify liver cancer at an early stage as it shows no signs and symptoms. Often the symptoms shown are also misleading and felt as some other health problem.

Scientific research shows that the causes of liver cancer are obesity, hepatitis B or C infection, extreme alcohol use and forming of Aflatoxin B1 from a mold called Aspergillus in our body. This mold enters our body through food. Coming to types of liver cancer the most common type is Hepato cellular cancer also called as Carcinoma. The other types are Cholangio carcinoma, Hepato blastoma and Angio sarcoma.

As told no particular symptoms are shown in the early stages of this cancer. But as the cancer develops then we can see some symptoms like pain in the abdomen. The pain is because of swelling of liver due to cancer cells. The other common symptom is Jaundice. Jaundice causes yellowing of skin or whitening of eyes. In the early stages we can see discoloration of skin.

Usually upset of abdomen is also observed in the cancer of the liver patients. This makes the patient lose the urge for food which leads to abnormal weight loss. Patients may feel unusually nauseous and may begin to vomit. As the disease progress one may observe fluids forming in the abdomen. Most of the times patients suffer with fever because of which patient may get headache, chills or sweating. Other common symptom is white and chalky stools.

Even though it is not possible to diagnose cancer of the liver in the early stages it is better to go to a doctor and undergo required tests when any of the above symptoms are observed. The chances of cure are high when liver cancer is in early stage than in advanced stage. In advanced stage the option is liver transplantation. With liver transplantation you are put on a waiting list until a compatible liver is found.

Best rout to take would be to go to the doctor when you are feeling bad. That way they can do the necessary test to see what the problem is and how best to treat it.

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Breast Cancer – Fight Breast Cancer Bravely

Mon among the female species and can be a death sentence if ignored. By neglecting yourself in this department with absent regular check ups then you can expect a painful road ahead – comgested of heartache and pain for those close to you as well. Breast cancer is treatable, so now is the time to set a date in the diary for regular self breast examination.

One of the first signs or symptoms of breast cancer is a lump in the breast. You will find that most breast lumps discovered early are rated as 9 out of 10 as being benign. Breast lumpiness can be that of breast change which usually becomes more obvious just before the start of a period, particularly in women over the age of 35

Also cysts/sacs of fluid is not uncommon in the breast tissue causing a feel of lumpiness. Fibroadenoma is a collection of fibrous glandular tissue which is more notably known to occur in younger women
If you notice a change in the shape/size of the breast or a lump even thickening then always check this out with your doctor.
Other signs to look out for is dimpling of the skin or nipple shape changing, for example, if ithe nipple turns in or sinks back into the breast. Blood-stained discharge from the nipple or an unusual blemish or rash around the surrounding area needs to be checked out.

A swelling or lump under your armpit can also be a sign. If you have found that you have any of the above symptoms then seek medical attention right away.

Do not worry at this stage because breast lumps as such do not necessarily mean cancer. However the above mentioned inverted nipple or blood stained discharge etc can mean another type of ailment, either way these will need attention

The doctor will examine the breast and if necessary will refer you to a specialist for further checks. If the results from a mammogram or ultra sound shows a cyst, then to have it removed may entail draining it through a fine needle. If the lump is solid then treatment will be with the use of a very fine needle where a sample of tissue will be taken and tested for cancer cells.

This is a disease you can fight but once it spreads, then the breast cancer becomes a battlefield leaving you fighting for survival. Early detection can stop this war.

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Alternative Cancer Cures – The Official Therapies

Science is constantly looking for new solutions to combat this disease of which so much has been studied for many years but still remains relatively unknown in part. It is still unclear what it is that triggers the uncontrolled growth of malignant cells and the mechanisms that allow the cancer to progress despite attempts to stop him. In spite of the efforts of medicine, unfortunately, people still die of cancer.

Prevention campaigns based on the indication of some risk behaviors (poor diet, smoking, etc…) minimally reduce the chances of getting sick. Some clinical analysis of periodic inspection give the possibility of earlier diagnosis (mammography, PSA), which allow you to discover some forms of cancer at an early stage, with good chances of recovery.

But the incidence is increasing. The causes are probably multiple and still largely unknown.

The official therapies for cancer treatment in recent years are expanding. Surgery, which is undoubtedly the most effective weapon for the most advanced tumors that affect the organs, is joined by several decades, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapies. Surgery has reached a very high standard of quality. Even in the most difficult operations, the percentage of risk is very low.

However, it is good to know that in just 1 cm tumor, there are about 1 billion cancer cells. Following a successful surgery a ‘minimal if any residual remaining 0.1% of cancer cells, it means you still have about 1 million malignant cells that could progress. For this reason it is often performed adjuvant chemotherapy with the hope of being able to eliminate any remaining balance. For some types of cancer, chemotherapy can now get good results, using more active and less toxic drugs. More precisely in some types of leukemias, lymphomas, sarcomas, tumors of the testis and chorion, chemotherapy allows real chance of recovery. In other tumors, chemotherapy can help to significantly increase survival or decrease the symptoms of the disease. However, in most cancers of the organs chemotherapy has very limited effectiveness. The main reason is that not all cancer cells are affected by the action of drugs during the stage of cell division. Those who survive are proving to be increasingly resistant to treatment and aggressive. Consequently, the stabilizations or regressions of the disease during chemotherapy treatment are often not very durable.

The obvious therapeutic range offered by cytotoxic drugs (chemotherapy) and radiation therapies (radiotherapy) for most of the high-grade malignant neoplasms, did expand the efforts of researchers around the world to find different solutions: the study of genes, new vaccines and therapeutic study of stem cells are the challenges for future research.

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An Alternative Cure For Cancer

The development of biotechnology applied to cancer research has allowed, through the identification of molecules that interact with a specific molecular target, to look at the treatment of cancer with a hint of optimism. In the near future cancer care will become increasingly specific and selective and, therefore, less invasive, and it to hit only the tumor cells.

The production of antibodies is one of the most advanced forms available to man to fight foreign invaders (viruses, bacteria) and internal (cancer). Unfortunately, cancer cells, by implementing a series of strategies escape from the antibody recognition and thus lower their potential defensiveness. Mutations of the protein present on certain tumor cells behave as switches always on, always with the result of stimulating malignant cell proliferation.
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Hence the idea (since 1975) to produce the “monoclonal antibodies”, or laboratory-made antibodies able to bind selectively the antigen (protein) present only on tumor cells. They are therefore highly specific drugs. Currently more than one thousand drugs are being tested, but only a few dozen are in use for some types of cancer.

Research offers today a wide range of specific agents for molecular targets: molecular antibodies directed to block cell proliferation through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, farnesyl inhibitors of the RAS oncoprotein, angiogenesis inhibitors (which inhibit the blood supply to the tumor through the interruption of the production of new blood vessels), etc…

For some types of cancer some of these drugs have proved very effective.

For example, in chronic myeloid leukemia drug tyrosine kinase inhibitor Gleevec produces a positive clinical response in almost all cases.

The limitation of these drugs is not always the fact that the antigen is expressed by tumor cells. More precisely, as argued by the same a Director of the Institute of Oncology, University Hospital of Padua Company, “not all cancer cells express the target against which the drugs are directed. It can also happen that the monoclonal antibody does not directly act on the active cell, but is blocked by the antigen in the blood circulating tumor and therefore is irrelevant because it can not reach the biological target to which it is built. ” Moreover, in many cases, though precise and efficient, the monoclonal antibody drug is not sufficient to completely inhibit the development of the disease. Often, the tumor growth is not tied to a single factor. Therefore, the block of a single item through a specific antibody, such as anti – vessel growth factor VEGF, may not be enough.

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It’s Amazing – Natural Remedies Cure Cancer

Natural herbs do have magical curing ability. Do you know that even fatal diseases like cancer can be cured by natural herbs? Yes, Lapacho is the herb. This wonder herb stands as a proof to the fact that natural remedies cure cancer.

Cancer is a deadly disease. No successful curing methods or medicines exist in allopathy for that. Lapacho, a natural herb found in abundance in South America has a miraculous curing effect on cancer. In this herb, the inner bark is used to make herbal medicines that cure cancer.

Existing allopathic cancer treatment methods have a list of not so likable side effects. The radiation kinds of treatments are very stressful for the patients experiencing cancer. But, the great news is that no adverse side effects are affected when natural remedies cure cancer.

There are two wonderful herb varieties. Tabebuia, Altissima and Tabebuia Avellaneda. When these two are mixed in proper proportions, they, both together present us miraculous cancer curing effects. Studies by South American medical practitioners reveal that, within one month, these herbs produce strong cancer curing effect and reduce the pain of cancer patients considerably.

Herbal tea made from Lapacho has excellent cancer curing effect. One cup of such tea is made from one heaping teaspoonful of Lapacho bark. If taken three times a day, this Lapacho tea offers cancer curing effect to the affected patients. Herbal extract from Lapacho produces even better possible effects.

Worldwide scientists have frankly agreed on the chemistry of Lapacho. In 1930’s, in Detroit, Michigan, Dr. Frederick Koch, M.D., used the ingredients from Lapacho tree bark, that are called Quinone. He produced, from that, astonishing cancer curing ability that was welcome news for the ailing cancer patients and whole of the medical world. He administered the medicines he produced even on advanced cancer patients and proved the herbs cancer curing effect beyond dispute.

Dr. Frederick used only a single Quinone from herb Lapacho. He revealed that this single specific Quinone of herb Lapacho is oxidizing(burning up) the encapsulated pockets of stagnant cancer-causing spots in the ailing cancer patients. His reports clearly showed the herb’s ability to provide a breath of oxygen to the cancer patients.

In total the herb Lapacho has about 16 quinones in it. It is to be noted that jungle Lapacho is totally immune to any sort of fungus infections. The curing ability of this wonder herb Lapacho is not limited only to cancer. It has a magical curing effect on other related diseases like Leukemia, Anaemia, Lupus, colitis, inflammation of the reproductive organs, Parkinson’s disease, Hodgkins disease, and all types of cancers. It is also found to be curing some other diseases including but not limited to Cystitis, Arteriosclerosis, Leukorrhea, haemorrhages, polyps, prostate inflammation and eczema.

Lapacho even cures gastric problems and psoriasis.

Lapacho daily dosage: Medicinal extract of this herb, mixed with a cup of water, can be taken from 40 to 80 drops and from three to four times a day for best possible curing effects. Up to 20 drops per day can be taken in confidence as preventative measure.

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